Writing a Research Paper Part 4

The purpose will be stated in the introduction of the topic, as well as in the abstract of a paper, if one is required. It is not uncommon to read an abstract that makes the statement –The Purpose of this paper is ….

The statement of the purpose of the research paper, as well as the inclusion of an abstract, are both style criteria determined by the research reporting style required of you by your instructor. Be certain that you are adhering to the instructions given to you by your instructor. There are many different style manuals of research. Each one provides the writer with guidelines for writing, and many fields prefer particular style guides.

For instance, English instructors prefer the Modern Language Association (MLA), and Psychology instructors prefer the American Psychological Association style guide (APA) (APA, 2014; Hacker, 1998). The guides provide writers with information concerning such things as margin setting, the writing of citations, references, and accreditations. All research papers require that you have either a
reference section, also known as works cited page, or a bibliography page.

The APA style guide requires that a research paper have a reference sheet (Borst, 1997; Ellsworth & Higgins, 2001; Hacker, 1998; Thaiss & Sanford, 2000; Weinbroer, 2001). A reference sheet is a list of all the articles cited in the text of the paper. If a work is not cited, it does not belong on the reference sheet. A bibliography page is a listing of the articles or books that are read or consulted when researching a research topic. These books or articles may or may not be cited in the body of the paper.

You know how you want your paper to look because you planned it out, you read the instructions, and you consulted the appropriate style guide. You have selected your quotes, created an out line or topical layout for your paper and focused your paper around a narrow theme. Having completed these tasks, you now proceed with the writing of your paper.

Once you complete it, rewrite it, check it for errors, and read it out loud. Ask a friend to check it for errors. Rewrite it again and then with the knowledge you have done all you were suppose to do, turn it in on time. You picked the topic, conducted the research, wrote the paper and learned it was not so frightening after all.

Writing a Research Paper Part 3

According to Borst (1997), not citing work is the mistake that student writers make which costs them the most points on their papers. An author’s work can be quoted directly.

“If you quote, paraphrase, or summarize a specific fact or idea from a source, cite in your text the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page from which the material came” (Ellsworth & Higgins, 2001, p56).

Depending on which discipline that you are writing the paper for, it may
not be necessary to use quotation marks. Thaiss and Sanford (2000) state that when writing Psychology papers, if the quote is fewer than 40 words, use quotation marks and give the page number.

For longer quotes, 40 words or more, place the author’s name at the beginning of the quote, the page number at the end and separate the quote from the text by indenting five spaces from the left margin (Thaiss & Sanford, 2000). Also, according to Ellsworth and Higgins (2001) if it is not a specific fact but a general statement about an entire article paraphrase it and mention the author’s last name and the year the article was published in the text.

Now that all of the information is gathered, the fun part begins.

It is time to write the research paper. The topic is chosen, the research is gathered and now it is time to organize and construct the information into a reader friendly document. Planning can make the actual writing of the paper
the easiest part of the process. Hacker (1998) suggests that you start with a plan.

Creating an outline is one way of planning a research paper. Grouping information into sub-categories or into topic sentences is another way to plan out the paper. When planning the paper, or predrafting, consider how you want the paper to look, what you want to tell the reader about the topic, and who will want to read the paper (Hacker, 1998; Ellsworth & Higgins, 2001; Thaiss &
Sanford, 2000; Weinbroer, 2001). According to Ellsworth & Higgins (2001), part of the planning process involves developing a focus, an overall theme or purpose of your paper.

Writing a Research Paper Part 2

Furthermore, the Library is full of books, journals, and media resources that can be useful to any researcher. When writing scientific papers many instructors require students to use journal articles, which are called primary sources (Thaiss & Sanford, 2000).

Because of the limited access to material, at some of the smaller schools, some instructors will accept secondary sources such as magazine articles, books, and newspapers as sources for nonprofessional student papers.

Many times when a topic is entered into a database or a search engine numerous articles will appear. It is not possible to read them all. That is why abstracts are important. Reading the abstract, a short article summary, can save a researcher an incredible amount of time (Thaiss & Sanford, 2000). If the article is relevant, read it and record notes about what you read, paying particular attention to sentences you might want to quote.

Some people photocopy the information that they find allowing them the freedom to take the information they find with them for later review. Be sure to record the bibliographical information when either photocopying or recording notes from an article. Failure to do this can be dangerous for a writer, because it may spur the temptation to copy information directly from an article without giving proper credit to the author of the source article.

To copy information from a book or article without attributing it to its source is called plagiarism. Plagiarism is illegal and unethical. Now, it can be very tempting to plagiarize because sometimes the article’s author used the exact words and sentences that you would use if you wrote the article. Maybe
the author wrote the perfect sentence. If it is the perfect sentence, use it, just quote the author. If the quote is shorter than four typed lines; indicate to the reader that it is a quote by placing quotation marks around it (Raimes, 1999). At the end of the quote, before the period and in parenthesis, write the last names of the author, the year and the page number.

Raimes (1999) explains in her book Keys For Writers that long quotes are handled differently than short quotes. If you quote more than three lines of poetry or four typed lines of prose, do not use quotation marks. Instead, indent the quotation one inch or ten spaces from the left margin in MLA style, or indent five spaces if you are using APA style. Double-space through out.

Do not indent from the right margin. You can establish the context for a long quotation and integrate it effectively into your text if you state the point that you want to make and name the author of the quotation in your introductory statement (pg. 89).

Writing a Research Paper


The purpose of this paper is to provide instruction for writing a research paper. Writing a research paper can be a frightening process. Instructors often assign research papers in-order to provide students with the opportunity to delve deeper into a subject. Choosing a subject, conducting the research, and writing the paper are the major tasks that students have to complete when writing a research paper. A selective review of sources concerning how to write research
papers was conducted.

The Research Paper Assignment

It is the first day of class, the instructor hands you a syllabus. It could be any class, Psychology, English, Government, Economics or even Kinesiology. You scan the syllabus and then you notice it, one of your assignments is a research paper. Writing a research paper can be a frightening process.

Research papers provide students with the opportunity to delve deeper into a subject.

Choosing a subject, conducting the research, and writing the paper are the major tasks that students have to complete when writing a research paper.
When choosing a subject for a research paper, pick a topic of interest (Wienbroer, 2001). Textbooks are excellent sources for potential ideas. Brainstorming, browsing through the newspapers, and considering experiences in your personal life are ways of generating ideas for your paper. The mistake that some students make is that they choose a subject that is too broad.

Narrowing the topic will help bring focus to the paper and will help you to wade through the tons of information (Hacker, 1998; Weinbroer, 2001).

Conducting the actual research is the part of the process of writing that frightens students the most.

There are many places where you can find information. Search engines, indexes
databases, and library catalogs can provide more than enough information for writing a research paper (Hacker, 1998; Thaiss & Sanford, 2000; Weinbroer, 2001).

Search engines, on the World Wide Web, make it easy for people to find information on almost any subject. Yahoo, Dogpile and Google are some of the more popular search engines used. When using a search engine, carefully examine the information it provides. Because the information may not be subject to peer review, information on the Internet can be inaccurate.

Also, information can be stored in electronic storehouses. These storehouses are called databases (American Psychological Association [APA], 2014; Weinbroer, 2001). Westlaw, Eric, Readers’s Guide Abstract, PsyLit, PsychInfo and Ebsco-host are all examples of databases that can provide research information. Databases are probably the best place to start when conducting research. Some students find it difficult to access the information in databases. Have no fear, Librarians are more that willing to assist students in their search.

Essay Writing Practice Guide

Step One: Thesis Statement Brainstorm

Argument:  Describe one way that the above statement can be proven true


Counter-argument: Describe one way that the above statement can be disproven

Step Two:  Thesis Statement

Directions:  Choose a thesis template below based on your thesis brainstorm from the previous step, and create a thesis using one of the templates below.

Full extent (Use if you have THREE arguments)

Moderate extent (Use if you have TWO arguments and ONE counter-argument)

Step Three:  Topic Sentences

Rewrite your thesis statement here

Directions:  Now, break down the three arguments/counter-arguments in your thesis statement into three separate topic sentences.  Each one of these topic sentences will begin each of your body paragraphs, and should explain what you will be arguing in each body paragraph.

Topic Sentence 1:  First argument or counter argument from the thesis statement. 

Use “because” to help you explain your argument or counter-argument.

Topic Sentence 2:  Second argument or counter argument from the thesis statement. 

Use “because” to help you explain your argument or counter-argument.

Topic Sentence 3:  Third argument or counter argument from the thesis statement. 

Use “because” to help you explain your argument or counter-argument.

Step Four: Evidence Workshop

Directions: Write out each one of your topic sentences.  Then find two pieces of evidence to support each argument/counter-argument.

Topic Sentence 1. Make sure that you have used the word “because” to help you explain your argument.

 Supporting evidence 1:  Quote or other information

Supporting evidence 2:  Quote or other information

Topic Sentence 2. Make sure that you have used the word “because” to help you explain your argument.

Step Five: Essay Graphic Organizer

Directions: Use the following graphic organizer to write your essay.  Each one of your topic sentences will become a body paragraph. Each body paragraph must contain two pieces of evidence from a text that support the argument or counter-argument being made in the paragraph.

Your thesis statement, topic sentences and pieces of evidence for each body paragraph, should be copied from prior pages.

By filling out the following essay graphic organizer, you will have completed a rough draft of your essay.

Do not use the following words in formal writing: I, we, your, feel, believe, thing, basically, a lot, things, something.

Introductory Paragraph

  1. Introduce your topic (Who are you writing about?, What events will be covered?, Where did they take place? When?) 
  2. Essay Thesis Statement: (Copy from previous section)

Body Paragraph 1

A. Topic Sentence 1: First argument/counter-argument: State your first argument or counter-argument from your thesis statement. Use the word “because” to explain your thought)

B. Provide context for your first piece of evidence. What background information does the reader need to understand the quote or information in part C below? If using a quote – Who wrote or said it? What is the quote about? Where was it written? When was it written?

C. First piece of evidence proving your argument/counter-argument above: Provide a quote or other information from a text would support this little thesis.

D. Paraphrase: Put this evidence in your own words if using a direct quotation from a text

“The author is communicating the idea that …”

E1. Analysis of evidence
“This evidence proves the argument that” …. (re-state your argument or counter-argument)

E2. Deepen your analysis by choosing ONE prompt below that is most relevant to your argument or counter-argument
– “This represents a change from the past/continuation of the past because …” OR
– “The tone/underlying belief of this evidence is …. This further supports my argument because …” OR
– “This was caused by/this led to ….” OR
– “This is significant because …”

Common Core State Standards for Five Paragraph Essay

This packet contains a comprehensive set of graphic organizers and suggested lessons that assist students through the entire essay writing process, including the construction of a thesis statement, the selection of appropriate supporting evidence, and the writing of a draft of the essay.

By employing heavy scaffolding, these graphic organizers allow students to create and develop complex, nuanced ideas and express them in a clear and coherent manner that is consistent with the type of writing required by the Common Core State Standards.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1a Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1b Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1c Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1d Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1e Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2a Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2b Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2c Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2e Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.2f Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

Specific Ways Treatment Helps

Defining Future Goals and Directions

Before entering Gambling Addiction treatment, compulsive gamblers generally see the future in very short-term ways: When can I gamble again or, how will I get the money to do it? Spouses and family members may move from crisis to crisis and be unable to plan for the future or consider their own needs. Gambling recovery involves changing attitudes and behaviors; it also requires developing an honest understanding of who one is and where one wants to go. Having a purpose and a plan assists in abstaining from gambling and regaining control of one’s life. The planning process is an important cornerstone for the work the client and therapist undertake.

Stopping Gambling

Perhaps the most important way treatment helps problem gamblers is by giving them the support and tools needed to stop gambling. Stopping can be a complex process that involves the tasks listed below plus a few more, such as coping with urges, eliminating financial pressures, and dealing with gambling triggers.

Protecting Family Members from Financial Consequences

Family members are impacted in many ways including damage to financial security and increased money pressures. Spouses and other family members can learn how to manage current financial consequences, prevent the accumulation of new debt, work toward financial stability.

Learning to Manage Stress

Problem gamblers and the people who care about them struggle with many sources of stress. Stress can lead to feelings of anxiety, sadness, helplessness, and hopelessness. Treatment helps them recognize the causes of stress and develop ways to reduce and cope with them.

Adjusting to Life without Gambling

Most people who seek help with gambling problems will try to remove gambling from their lives. For the gambler, this often means developing new interests and letting go of some old ones. For both the gambler and family members, therapy can be helpful in adjusting to a more healthful lifestyle and finding enjoyment through recovery.

Developing New Ways of Thinking

Living with problem gambling often leads to unhealthful ways of thinking. One purpose of treatment is to help gamblers and family members become more thoughtful about what they do and how they do it. Therapy is an opportunity to think carefully about your actions, choices, and options.

Creating Healthy Relationships

Problem gambling profoundly affects social and family relationships. As gambling becomes more of a priority, significant relationships receive less positive attention. Deception, breaches of trust, and financial problems may all damage relationships. When a person stops gambling, it is possible to renew caring and trust, even though those closest to the gambler may be angry and distrustful. Therapy can help gamblers and their families rebuild relationships and make them better.

Recognizing and Dealing with Feelings

Gambling replaces emotions or serves as an escape from them. Therapy can help clients deal constructively with feelings, especially in early recovery when negative emotions seem overwhelming. It can help clients learn to identify how they feel, why they feel that way, and what they can do about it. The capacity to identify and use feelings constructively not only helps clients reduce the power gambling has over their lives but also helps them enhance the quality of life and relationships.


7 Ultimate Online Typing Lessons Services For Beginners

In this age of technology and increased focus on computer use, one of the most crucial skills is the ability to comfortably using a computer. One must not be an expert but a basic understanding of computers is an important skill in any potential career. This brings a need to be able to type effectively and accurately.

However, we cannot dispute the fact that sitting posture is crucial for your overall health and typing proficiency. Right typing posture basically means that you are in a posture that you are comfortable with. For beginners, typing accordingly and maintaining the right typing posture can be a daunting task. This is why there are numerous sites offering online typing lessons to help them acquire necessary typing skills.

How to maintain proper typing posture

Get a proper chair

Typing chair should be adjustable. This will help you adjust it to an appropriate height for your legs to rest on 90 degrees on the ground. This will help in straightening your back and give you enough lumber support.

Proper distance from the keyboard

Avoid sitting far away from the keyboard as you might not reach the keys above the home row and if you place it closely, hitting keys below home row will be hard. Both positions can force you to sit uncomfortably and affect your typing speed. Your hands should be maintained at the neutral and approximately straight position.

Keep feet at 90 degrees on the ground

This will balance your body enhancing your typing ability. Hanging legs can cause injury to your spine.

Sitting upright

This will provide balance and you will be able to type faster. By sitting upright with eyes fixed on the screen you will keep your spine comfortable and your typing effectiveness will be improved.

Position your wrists accordingly

You should avoid raising your wrists a lot so you don’t curve them. Maintaining proper positioning reduces fatigue in your arms. On the other hand, your wrists should not lie on the keyboard as this will affect your typing speed and accuracy. Keep them in a neutral position.

Keep your elbows in

With elbows close to your sides your fingers will hardly come off home row. This is because if your fingers loose sense of home raw it will be hard to detect other keys.

Need help? Ask your question Free!

Part-Time Employment Opportunities that Can Get You Full-Time Income

These days, some people have to get a second or even a third job to make ends meet. If you feel that you need to take on another job to have more money for your monthly budget, then it would be wise to search through top-paying part-time employment opportunities that provide a full-time income. Here are some of the top-paying part-time jobs available:


  1. Massage Therapist – Massage therapists enjoy flexible schedules, perfect for part-time work. Moreover, the industry is expected to grow by 20% through 2016, ensuring a steady flow of income. Massage school or a community college program and state licensing requirements are usually enough to break through this lucrative field. Massage therapists earn $23 per hour on the average, but some freelancers can earn up to $69 per hour.
  2. Translator – Multilingual people can find lucrative part-time employment as translators. People fluent in critical-need languages like Chinese, Korean, Hindi and Arabic are usually in high demand, attracting the highest income (up to $85,000 a year for 10 to 15 hours a week). A college degree is recommended, but it’s not necessary.
  3. Graphics Designer – Visual artists and independent illustrators are in high demand these days. But the key for making the most in this field is to be knowledgeable about all kinds of media, particularly print publishing, web design and video production. A graphic design degree can help you break into the profession. You can also take a two-year or four-year course. Graphic designers earn an average of $29 per hour, but some of the more experienced professionals can earn more than $100 per hour.
  4. Interior Designer – Interior designers are professionals tasked to design plans for internal work and living areas, including those for homes, hospitals and schools. The job commands a hefty hourly wage, from $75 to $225 per hour. A bachelor’s or design degree is important to break into the field. However, the top-earners are nationally certified through a qualification exam by the National Council for Interior Design.
  5. Life/Business Coach – Life coaches help their clients achieve various goals, be it losing weight or organizing their work. Licensing requirements are not mandatory, but it would help you to have credentials from the International Coaching Federation (ICF), the International Coaching Council (ICC) or the Worldwide Association of Business Coaches. Life and business coaches earn an average of $55 per hour.

Resume Writing Tips After a Lay Off


Many people who have been unemployed for at least six months are concerned about what to write in their resumes. How do they explain the “gap” in time? Will it affect their chances when hunting for a job?


There was a time when long unemployment would have been damaging to your employment chances. The good news now is that many employers are giving more leeway these days, considering the recession. But then again, that doesn’t mean time-out from work won’t affect your employment chances. If you want to get an edge, apply these resume writing tips:


Unemployment Advice No. 1: Being out of work doesn’t mean inactivity


You may be unemployed for now, but you can spend time wisely by doing many things, as repeatedly stressed in job hunting tips by many experts. For instance, you can engage in volunteer or project work to keep yourself busy. You can also take up short-term training programs and other similar activities. These will help you keep your skills relevant and up-to-date. When networking and hunting for opportunities in the job grapevine, all these will make sure you still qualify for many jobs.


Unemployment Advice No. 2: Write all your experiences down


By engaging in productive activities, you have something to add to your resume, instead of a gap. That way, your employers will see that you’ve been busy taking advantage of your “free time” to improve yourself. You give potential employers the impression that you are self-motivated and willing to learn new things.

Stable Job Openings

With the unemployment rate tipping at 10.2%, it is difficult to imagine if there are still any stable job openings out there. However, there still are jobs considered as “recession proof.” Anyone looking to make a career change may want to check out the following jobs that provide the best security:


Nursing – Healthcare careers in general have always been recession proof since healthcare provides fundamental needs. Demand for registered nurses in the next 10 years is estimated to be among the fastest growing healthcare jobs. The average salary of a registered nurse ranges from $55,000 to $90,000 annually.


Occupational Therapist – Another healthcare job, occupational therapists assist patients and help them use adaptive equipment as well as improve their mobility. The average salary of occupational therapists ranges from $50,000 to $75,000 annually.


Financial Advisors – With the recession, demand for financial advisors who help in making wise investment decisions have risen for both business needs and individual needs. The salary of a financial advisor varies depending on their client base. However, it’s known that the top-earning financial advisors generate seven-figure annual salaries.


Retailers – Jobs in retail include store managers, assistant store managers and retail sales associates and they are responsible for running stores and assisting shoppers with their needs. The average salary in retail services vary depending on your position. Sales associates earn an annual salary ranging from $15,000 to $30,000, while store managers earn up to $80,000.


UPS Driver Helpers – For those interested in making extra money during the holidays, becoming a UPS driver helper may be a good part-time job. UPS driver helpers earn an average of $9.50 per hour or more, depending on location.


The Promising Green Career Option


The country’s unemployment rate is hitting 10%. However, placement experts still predict growth in green job openings in the next decade. The current administration is aiming to create around 5 million jobs during this period to fill out positions that will help propel renewable energy, advanced manufacturing of sustainable products and implement eco-friendly services. Simply put, the green career option has a promising future.


What exactly is a green-collar job?


Many people think that an eco-friendly job is restricted to highly technical fields like engineering in renewable energy. However, these comprise a small portion of the so-called green-collar job sector. Only 13% of green job openings is considered under “high skill” jobs (or jobs that require at least a bachelor’s degree). In fact, more than two-thirds of green job openings are “middle skill” jobs (where applicants don’t need a bachelor’s degree to qualify), while 21% are considered “low skill” jobs.


Although additional education may be necessary for people who want to go green, you won’t necessarily have to enroll in traditional four-year courses to make the switch to an eco-friendly job more accessible.


Where are green job openings found?


Green job openings can be found in the most common industries in business, marketing and construction, to name a few. This means that experienced workers can transfer the bulk of their skills to work in a similar eco-friendly occupation. The only difference is that the green career option focuses on sustainable practices to accomplish the organization’s goals.


There are many career-training programs available that focus on sustainable practices. Choose the course that complements your current skills and conforms to the requirements of your desired eco-friendly job.